Thursday, September 30, 2010

EuroFighter Typhoon 2003

  Name: EuroFighter Typhoon Constructor: Several European countries Length: 15m96   Max Speed: Mach 2.0+ Ceiling: 18290 m height: 5... thumbnail 1 summary

Name: EuroFighter Typhoon
Constructor: Several European countries
Length: 15m96  
Max Speed: Mach 2.0+
Ceiling: 18290 m
height: 5m28
Weight Max: 23500 kg  
Range: 1390 km
Span: 10m95
Crew: 1
Engines: 2


1 cannon 27 mm
6500 kg max payload
15 types of rockets

The Eurofighter is the product of a consortium of British Aerospace, Deutsche Aerospace (Germany), Alenia (Italy), and CASA (Spain), with the United Kingdom and Germany providing technological leadership. Under full-scale development since 1988, the Eurofighter is a 46,000 lb, single-seat, twin-engine short takeoff and landing (STOL) multirole fighter, optimized for air superiority with both beyond-visual-range (BVR) missile capability and close-in combat agility, but also featuring air-to-ground capabilities. Computer simulations (focusing on BVR air-to-air combat) conducted by European contractors and government agencies suggest that the Eurofighter is superior to all U.S., Russian, and European fighters examined, with the exception of the F-22. While it is impossible to assess the validity of these findings, they do indicate that the developers of the Eurofighter are aiming for highly impressive capabilities.
The Eurofighter Typhoon is a twin-engine multi-role canard-delta strike fighter aircraft, designed and built by a consortium of European aerospace manufacturers, Eurofighter GmbH, formed in 1983.

The series production of the Eurofighter Typhoon is now underway and the aircraft has formally entered service with the Italian Air Force. 'Initial Operational Capability' is expected to be declared by Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom in 2006. Austria has purchased 18 Typhoons, while Saudi Arabia signed a contract on 18 August 2006 for 72 to be built by BAE Systems.

Technical Briefing

The Eurofighter is a product of a four nation consortium made up of the UK, Germany, Italy, and Spain. The Eurofighter program began in 1983 with a desire to produce an aircraft that could be used for worldwide defense well into the 21st century. Formal development began with the EAP (Experimental Aircraft Programme) in 1988. In March of 1994, the first flight of the EF2000 prototype occurred. The EF2000 is now slated for delivery to the RAF in the year 2003. The Eurofighter is a canard equipped delta aircraft optimized for the air-superiority role but able to be used for ground attack. Extensive use of high technology materials has been made including carbon composites, glass reinforced plastics, titanium, and aluminum lithium, in 80% of the airframe. Like the Gripen and Rafale the EF2000 uses canards and a broad delta wing to get the best combination of agility, lift, and speed.

The cockpit environment is one of the most advanced in the world using digital fly-by wire and multi-function displays. Twin EJ2000 reheated turbofans provide for a powerful yet efficient propulsion system. Advanced armament makes the EF2000 a deadly adversary for any enemy.

Specification and Dimensions Eurofighter Typhoon
TypeEurofighter Typhoon
ExportGreece (60); Austria (18); Saudi Arabia (72 - replacing the Tornado)
FunctionMulti-role fighter
Engines2× Eurojet EJ200 afterburning turbofans, 60 kN dry, 93 kN with afterburner.
Length15.96 m
Height5.28 m
Wing span10.95m
Wing area50.0 m2
Wing loading311 kg/m²
Wing aspect ratio2.205
Canard Area2.4 m2
Tail Plane AreaN/A
Maximum speedMach 2.0+ (2390 km/h at high altitude)
Maximum speed at low altitudeMach 1.2 (1470 km/h, 915 mph at sea level)
Supercruise speedMach 1.3+ at altitude with typical air-to-air armament
Minimum speed203 km/h
Rate of climb255 m/s
Service ceiling18290 m (60,000 ft)
Time to 10600m/Mach 1.5< 2,5 min
Runway length500 m (take off under 8 seconds)
Range1390 km
Basic mass empty9750 kg (21,495 lb.)
Empty Weight10995 kg
Max take-off mass23500 kg
Max external stores6500 kg (14,300 lb.)
Internal Fuel Weight5000 kg
Maximum instantenous turn rateUnknown
Maximum sustained turn rateUnknown
Armament1x 27 mm Mauser BK-27 cannon


The Eurofighter carries NATO's best weapons. It has a high load Capacity with flexible missile configurations. It has thirteen carriage points, three of which are capable of holding external fuel tanks. The maximum fuel or weapons payload is 6,500 kg (14,330 lb.). A mixture of at least ten ASRAAMs (advanced short range air-to-air missiles) and AMRAAM (advanced medium range air-to-air missiles) can be carried with four of the AMRAAMs housed in low drag, low observability fuselage stations. A wide variety of air-to-surface weapons can be carried on seven stations, including avionics stores such as laser designators.


* S-225 long range (radar guided)
   * AIM 120 medium range (radar guided)
   * ASRAAM short range infra-red
   * AIM 9M short range infra-red
   * 27mm Mauser cannon


* AGM 65 Maverick
   * ALARM anti-radar missile
   * Sea Eagle anti-ship missile
   * Paveway laser guided bombs
   * CR-V7 unguided rockets
   * BL755 cluster bombs.v
   * Durandal, other free fall bombs.

Tuesday, September 21, 2010

Concorde Air Plane

Concorde Plane Faster Than Speed Of Sound Nearly 374 miles per Second!!! Concorde was the only supersonic airliner that regularly fle... thumbnail 1 summary

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Concorde Plane Faster Than Speed Of Sound Nearly 374 miles per Second!!!

Concorde was the only supersonic airliner that regularly flew above the speed of sound. Concorde was first flown in 1969 and began commercial service in the mid-1970's.
British Airways had seven Concordes and Air France had five aircraft. All concordes are now retired after 25 years of passanger service and nearly 35 years of flight. They have gone to their final resting places at museums around the world.
The Aerospatiale-BAC Concorde supersonic transport (SST) was one of only two models of supersonic passenger airliners to have seen commercial service. Concorde had a cruise speed of mach 2.04 and a cruise altitude of 60,000 feet (17,700 metres) with a delta wing configuration and an evolution of the afterburner equipped engines originally developed for the Avro Vulcan strategic bomber. It is the first civil airliner to be equipped with an analogue fly-by-wire flight control system. Commercial flights, operated by British Airways and Air France, began on January 21, 1976, and ended on October 24, 2003, with the last "retirement" flight on November 26, that year.
The Anglo-French supersonic Concorde was once the world’s most advanced aircraft, and the only supersonic airliner to serve regular routes across the Atlantic, for both British Airways and Air France. At an 18,000 meter cruising altitude and a speed of 2,200 km/h - over twice the speed of sound (Mach 2.04) - the Concorde could reach New York in around 3.5 hours. With a length of 62.6 m and a span width of 25.6 m, it was powered by 4 Rolls Royce/Snecma Olympus 593 engines producing over 17,000 h.p. per unit. It made its maiden flight in 1969 and its last flight in 2003. The Concorde F-BVFB shown here was flown to Baden Airport on 24.06.2003, then disassembled and transported to the Auto & Technik Museum Sinsheim, Germany in very spectacular fashion by road and river. Concorde’s final journey, but the start of a new career with many visiting “passengers”!

Technological features
Many features common in the early 21st century airliners were first used in Concorde.


* Length: 204ft 6 ins(62.19m)
* Fuselage width : 9ft48ins(2.88m)
* Ranges: 3740miles
* Cruising speed: 1336mph(Mach2.04)
* Passengers: 128

For speed optimization:
double-delta (ogive) shaped wings
afterburning Roll-Royce/Snecma Olympus turbojets with supercruise capability
thrust-by-wire engines, ancestor of today's FADEC controlled engines
droop-nose section for good landing visibility

For weight saving and enhanced performance:
Mach 2.04 'sweet spot' for optimum fuel consumption (supersonic drag minimum, while jet engines are more efficient at high speed) mostly aluminium construction for low weight and relatively conventional build full-regime autopilot and autothrottle allowing "hands off" control of the aircraft from climb out to landing
fully electrically-controlled, analog fly-by-wire flight controls systems multifunction flight control surfaces
high-pressure hydraulic system of 28 MPa (4,000 lbf/in) for lighter hydraulic systems components fully electrically controlled analog brake-by-wire system pitch trim by shifting fuel around the fuselage for center-of-gravity control parts milled from single alloy billet reducing the part number count.

Experience in making Concorde later became the basis of the Airbus consortium and many of these features are now standard equipment in Airbus airliners. Snecma Moteurs, for example, got its first entry into civil engines here. Experience with Concorde opened the way for it to establish CFM International, with GE producing the successful CFM International 56 series engines. The primary partners, BAC, later to become BAE Systems, and Aerospatiale, later to become EADS, are the joint owners of Concorde's type certificate. Responsibility for the Type Certificate transferred to Airbus with formation of Airbus SAS.

Tuesday, September 7, 2010

Aviation's Future Looks Better

G eneral aviation is currently a major part of our economy. General aviation currently accounts for nearly 33 million jobs and $1.5 tri... thumbnail 1 summary

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General aviation is currently a major part of our economy. General aviation currently accounts for nearly 33 million jobs and $1.5 trillion GDP (Norton, 2009) with nearly 229,149 registered aircraft (Wilson, 2010). It
directly or indirectly benefits almost every sector of the American economy. Despite government interference and higher taxes, general aviation is hopeful for the future (AOPA, 2010).

In the last few years, the economy has been in a slump. With the economic downside, the general aviation industry has also been suffering. Gas prices have been higher than ever, grounding thousands of general aviation pilots and causing corporations to use more cost efficient forms of transportation such as ground transportation or the use of air carriers. With the change to more cost efficient forms of transportation, the general aviation industry is slightly sinking, but new technology and high hopes for the future are creating a positive impact.

As the economy gets better throughout the next few years, the future of general aviation is "hopeful." According to the FAA's forecast, the general aviation aircraft fleet will increase by about 50,000 aircraft and 52,000 pilots by 2030. As more pilots take to the skies, the number of hours flown by general aviation are expected to climb to about 38.9 million hours in 2030 from 23.3 million in 2009 (Wilson, 2010). As the amount of active aircraft and pilots increase, the economical dependence and benefits will rise with it. According to Oxford Economics, approximately 50 million jobs and $3.6 trillion of the world's GDP will depend on general aviation by 2026 (Norton, 2009).

Technological advancements are going to be very important in the future as more aircraft take to the skies. NextGen technologies are going to pave the way for future general aviation safety and efficiency. Glass cockpits and improved navigation systems will increase safety while new fuel technologies will increase efficiency and lower costs.

The major change to air navigation comes with a new and more accurate air traffic control system. The new air traffic control system will be satellite-based, which is more accurate than the current ground-based radar
system (Wood, 2010). This system, known as ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast), will provide air-to-air surveillance capability. This means that both the pilots and air traffic controllers will have the ability to see radar-like displays with highly accurate data from satellites (FAA, 2008). ADS-B will greatly increase safety for all of aviation. Pilots will be able to locate other aircraft in their vicinity and make practical maneuvers to avoid collisions with more reasonable time to react.

Another major change that NextGen technology is bringing is advancement in noise reduction and reduced fuel burn and carbon emissions. Pratt and Whitney is currently creating an engine that will save approximately 20% fuel burn for larger aircraft. The increased fuel efficiency, faster transportation, and reduced carbon emissions will encourage people to fly more. The NextGen technologies combined with aircraft will not replace any other forms of transportation in the future, but with the advancements of technology, people will be more likely to fly, rather than drive long distances.

In the next ten years general aviation will create thousands of jobs. There will be hundreds of different types of jobs becoming available for current students. These jobs range from corporate pilots, to medical air transportation, to private charter pilots. Since most of the jobs will be opening up over the next 5-10 years, the chances of current students of getting a job after graduation is greater than the current job offerings (FAA, 2008).

General Aviation plays an important role in our economy. It directly or indirectly affects almost every industry in the world. The future outlook for general aviation looks good, especially with an increasing economic status.


AOPA. (2010). General Aviation Serves America. Retrieved April 3, 2010 , from

FAA. (2008, September 23). Surveillance and Broadcast Services. Retrieved April 3, 2010, from Federal Aviation Administration:

Norton, T. (2009, June 16). 50 Million Aviation Jobs, $3.6 Trillion GDP by 2026. Retrieved April 3, 2010, from General Aviation News:

Wilson, B. (2010). General Aviation Poised for Growth, FAA Forecast Says. The Weekly of Business Aviation, 90 (11), 117.

Wood, J. (2010, March 9). Forecast Links NextGen and National Economic Growth. Retrieved April 3, 2010, from General Aviation News: